This series emerged from earlier
efforts of ours to understand the relationship between the Enneagram and the MBTI, on the subject of which we publish an on-line Journal. It is also informed by previous work that we
have done on the structure of
Consciousness and on Personality Type and Organizational Form.
This series of papers, written in 1999, explores the Enneagram
AS SYMBOL. The Enneagram is presented as a classic mandala figure which
also displays features that are characteristic of both the
'double mandala' and 'triple mandala'.
It was our intention in presenting this series to offer a new perspective on the relationship between two kinds of personality system. One system, represented by the Enneagram, emerged from spiritual traditions that seek to affect profound transformations of personality in the individual. The other, represented by the MBTI, arose from the psychologist's quest to understand the fundamental ways in which people differ.
We hope to have demonstrated how these two approaches to personality actually supplement each other. Given the right explanatory framework valuable information in one system can be translated into terms that are understandable in the other. Each can thus be used to advance the other's goals in ways that are not likely to otherwise occur.
This series also presents a unique new approach to the Enneagram. It emphasizes
the fact that some of the characterological 'deficits' by which specific enneagram personality types are characterized are actually expressions of enlightened qualities that have not been fully realized in the individual. As a label for this approach we borrow the phrase 'path of realization' from Buddhism, where such a path is contrasted to the 'path of renunciation' and the 'path of transformation'. We argue that the 'path of realization' is intimately related to the 'Enneagram of Symbol' in much the same way that the 'Enneagram of Type' and the 'Enneagram of Process' are respectively related to the other two paths currently fashionable in Enneagram circles.
Finally, we also hope that this series furthers the discussion regarding the nature and function of 'the mandala'. In the spiritual traditions from which Jung borrowed the
term, it is not the SYMMETRY of mandalas that is all-important, as Jung
later led us to believe. It is their capacity to reveal the asymmetry
that resides at the very heart of symmetry. By offering a new view about how consciousness itself is structured - in a fundamentally paradoxical fashion - and how these structurings are reflected in principles according to which the mandala is organized, we are able in this series to show how personality itself may be thought of as
having an essentially 'liminocentric' design.
The Papers Contained in this Volume:
Our Hypothesis - The Enneagram is to Jungian 'Self' as the MBTI
is to 'Ego'
Fudjack and Dinkelaker - Feb 1999
The Enneagram is best conceived as, first and foremost, a tool on the SPIRITUAL path. Putting this proposition in Jungian terms, we would say that
whereas the MBTI deals primarily with Ego concerns, the real power of the Enneagram
resides in what it can tell us about the potential relationship that the individual has with what Jung called the 'Self', which arises as the new 'center' of personality in later life, after the individual has successfully 'differentiated' his/her Ego and has embarked on the spiritual path that Jung called 'individuation'.
Part One - Ego, Self, and Liminocentric Structures
J. Fudjack and P. Dinkelaker - February, 1999
Mandalas may be conceived as having a special kind of non-linear
ORGANIZATIONAL FORM that we call 'liminocentric', in which
the center of the structure wraps back around on the
structure's periphery - so that its innermost and outermost
reaches are identical in their 'undifferentiated' vastness, while
intermediary levels are discrete and distinguishable. The two
incommensurable orders of existence are thereby reconciled,
and the mandala succeeds in representing what Jung called
As a classic mandala figure, the Enneagram symbolizes an advanced stage of the
individual's development, in which consciousness as a whole is revealed as organized
in such a fashion. Such mandalas emerge spontaneously as a result of the psyche's attempt to contain and deal with the forces that are unleashed in the course of the process of self-actualization, as a shift occurs in the individual - from
ego-centered personality to the 'total personality' that Jung calls the 'Self'.
Part Two - The 'Missing Fourth' and the 'Superfluous Ninth'
John Fudjack and Patricia Dinkelaker - February, 1999.
Just as the first half of the number series (one to five) psychologically represent the first half of the spiritual path - in which the realization of 'emptiness' (represented by the 'missing fourth') is sought - the second half of the number series (from five to nine) represents the second half of the spiritual path - in which one returns from emptiness to 'form'. This involves a gratuitous 'final step' in which spirit literally 'matters'. And just as obstacles in the first half of the
path can constellate around the peculiar nature of the 'missing fourth', issues regarding the 'superflous ninth' arise in the second half of the path.
While Jung focused his attention on the psychological developments required for the
move from the number three to the number four, and on the cultural and evolutionary
significance of this (vis a vis the emphasis in Christianity on the 'trinity', for instance), Ouspensky and Gurdjieff were more inclined to explore the psychological meaning of the numbers appearing in the latter half of the series - on Seven, Eight, and Nine in particular - and on the special issues associated with these.
Part Three - Seven and Nine, the Mystical Twins
J. Fudjack and P. Dinkelaker - February, 1999
Seven and Nine are treated as interchangeable 'mystical' numbers in certain Central Asian cultures, representing progressive stages in the spiritual journey.
In one shamanistic ritual, the 'eighth piece' (representing completion and wholeness) is 'sacrificed' in certain rituals, whereby a superfluous 'ninth' arises out of the remaining 'seven'.
This paper goes into detail regarding how a similar ambiguity exists between
the numbers seven and nine in the Enneagram, as symbol, and similar psychological dynamics take place as a superflous 'ninth' point emerges on the enneagram
when Ouspensky treats it as the representation of a musical 'octave'.
Part One - The 'I Ching' & other 'Divination Machines'
J. Fudjack and P. Dinkelaker - March, 1999
Double mandalas, because they focus on the interface between the two
incommensurable orders - where form becomes emptiness and emptiness becomes
form - were throughout history also treated as magical devices. They were considered
instruments of divination and prophecy, and utilized as spiritual guides. Meaning was
attributed to randomized events made to occur 'outside' of the 'causal order' in such a
way that the user of the device could obtain information about outcomes taking place in
corresponding processes WITHIN the causal order.
In this paper we explain how the diagram that we know as the Enneagram is a classic example of a 'double mandala', and learn something important about the PROCESSES that are associated with such figures. Like other double-mandalas, the Enneagram is comprised of two figures which, in combination, depict special kinds of 'movement' that are, in general, conceived as paradoxical - impossible, yet nevertheless somehow in fact achieved. But it also explores, in its own unique way, a type of 'movement' that is associated with profound transformation, a primordial 'movement of mind' that plays a key role in all of the spiritual traditions.
Part Two - Shri Yantra, Kabbalah, and Inner Alchemy
J. Fudjack and P. Dinkelaker - March, 1999
In certain mandalas that are amongst the most profound and spiritually meaningful, both
characteristics of the mandala - non-linear (liminocentric) structure and paradoxical movement - are inextricably interwoven. In the Shri Yantra, which we explore in this paper, liminocentric structuring is combined with a very special kind of paradoxical 'movement', a primordial sistolic/diastolic MOVEMENT OF CONSCIOUSNESS, in which awareness alternately (and ultimately simultaneously) contracts inwardly toward the center of the diagram and back outward toward the periphery, in a manner that is most aptly modeled by a three-dimensional 'spiral' made to wrap back around on itself in a donut-shaped figure that is called a 'torus' by mathematicians. Mastery of this kind of mental movement is, as we shall see, the primary subject of the early 'Yoga Sutras',
which act as the theoretical foundation for the meditational systems out of which the
mandala, as a profound spiritual practice and visualization, originally emerged.
Part One - Outer, Inner, and Secret Mandala
J. Fudjack and P. Dinkelaker - April, 1999
Using as a model the Vajrayana Buddhist perspective on the use and
meaning of the mandala, we see how the Enneagram is comprised of superimposed 'outer', 'inner', and 'innermost' mandalas, and how these are related to three approaches to the spiritual path, characterized in the Buddhist system as the 'path of renunciation', the 'path of transformation', and the 'path of realization'.
Part Two - The 'Third Turning of the Wheel of Teaching'
J. Fudjack and P. Dinkelaker - May, 1999
This paper is about how the 'wheel' manifests in its 'third turning', as 'path of realization' teachings.
Are the qualities of the 'realized' being already present in some form within
the 'non-realized' being - albeit in an obscured or hidden way? Using a 'path of realization' approach, we begin to appreciate how the emergence of the qualities are not the product of an ACQUISITION, an attempt to grasp that which is other, alien, distant. It is a RELAXING INTO that which we are already, at some level at least, in possession of. This may be a very subtle difference, but it is one that makes all the difference in the world. At some point on the spiritual path it actually becomes necessary to let go of the subtlest level of grasping, and the subtlest form of object-to-be-grasped.
Interlude: Circumabulating the Fourth Dimension
J. Fudjack and P. Dinkelaker - June-July, 1999
Here we present four additional papers - a series within a series that takes us on a guided detour, a spin through psychological hyperspace. All of a sudden, somewhere between the 8th and 9th papers in this seven-part series, we find ourselves on totally new ground, with a need to delve more deeply into matters that are critical for coming to grips with the spiritual approach with which most readers will be least familiar - the 'path of realization'. Herein we gather the remaining conceptual tools necessary for the successful completion of our journey.
1) The 'Self' as Hyperbody - Nested Realities and the 'Fourth Dimension'. Here we conceive of the Jungian 'Self' as a 'hyperbody' existing in a transcendent space that is psychologically equivalent to a 'fourth dimension', just beyond the reach of object-oriented consciousness. With our feet on earth and our head in the clouds, we prepare to see how actions in this world create 'qualities' in 'spirit-bodies' that we can't see, objects in a 'super-reality' of which we are not ordinarily conscious. Mathematical 'hypercubes', Dali's CRUCIFIXION, Edinger on COAGULATIO, and Arthur Young's theories on the nature of the fourth dimension are discussed.
2) How Many Facets Can a Non-Existent Jewel Have? - Three Path-of-Realization Tales. Here we take a look at what three 'Path of Realization' tales have to tell us about the nature of the spiritual 'Qualities' associated with such a 'body' and their ontological status. On closer inspection we see that the 'spiritual' qualities are windows on psychological hyperspace, and not at all like the 'qualities' that objects in our mundane world possess. They are quintessential paradoxes, the characterological riddles on which our personalities are founded. The WIZARD OF OZ, the CONFERENCE OF BIRDS, and the KING AND THE CORPSE are covered.
3) Picking Ourselves Up By Our Bootstraps - Non-linear Nesting Orders in Myth and Ritual. Here we explore how these bodies and their qualities are intimately related to the 'non-linear nesting orders' on which myth and ritual are founded, and to the liminocentric structure of consciousness. The liminocentric structure of consciousness manifests in myth and ritual as nested storylines that loop back on themselves, and in synecdoche, the 'master trope'(or figure of speech). These two are related, and as human beings we utilize both in order to become creators of our own worlds. In this section we discuss the implications of Mary Doniger O'Flaherty work on Indian myth and Terence Turner's
work in cultural anthropology.
4) Taking (Hyper)Action in Lucid Dreams - the 'Enneagram of Paradigm Shifting' and the 'Enneagram of Self and Ego'. Here we appreciate how the Spiritual Qualities manifest in everyday life in such a way as to provides us with a window of opportunity for profound personal change. In preparation for taking action from a Hyper-perspective, we must turn mundane consciousness 'inside out'. That which looks like 'conflict', 'contradiction', and 'anomaly' in a lower-reality, when embraced as 'riddle', 'archetype' and 'mystery', can turn LUCID the dream in which we find ourselves. What practical steps can we take in order to do this? Using the Enneagram to model the psychology of the 'personal paradigm shift' and the transition from an Ego-centered personality to one centered on the 'Self', we extrapolate from the work of Gregory Scott Sparrow on lucid dreaming to arrive at an understanding of the kind of 'affirmations' that it would be necessary for an individual to
make in order to affect such profound change.
The Nine Types, From a 'Path of Realization' Perspective
J. Fudjack and P. Dinkelaker - Sept, 1999
In this paper we hope to shed new light on the relationship
between the Enneagram and the MBTI.
The enneagram, as mandala, displays a liminocentric organization. This is what ultimately allows us to see the 'conflicts and contradictions' that are used to characterize specific enneagram types as lower-level expressions of enlightened 'Qualities' that are unconsciously seeking to break through in the individual on her path toward self-actualization. The 'mystery' or 'riddle' that underlies each enneagram type and manifests such curious structurings are to be found not in the enneagram type-descriptions per se, but in what Jung has written about the paradoxical 'enanantiodromic' relationship that exists between the dominant and inferior functions in the specific JUNGIAN TYPE that is PROTOTYPICAL of each enneagram type.
This state of affairs is doubly ironic. For although it is the Enneagram which
seeks by nature to fulfill a 'spiritual' purpose by which ego-centered
personality can be transcended, it is the theoretical 'infrastructure' of the MBTI - Jung's 'four function' theory - that provides the missing link which reveals the paradoxical structurings at the heart of each Enneagram type. And these are the
key to profound personality change, despite the fact that the MBTI does not
ostensibly believe in the possibility of such change.
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