The Enneagram of Consciousness and Jungian Psychology 1

© Walter Geldart, M. Eng., M. Div.
- 1997


Introduction

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section one
Jungian psychology provides insight into nine Enneagram Personality Types because nine Jungian psychological processes of consciousness can be assigned to nine points on an Enneagram of Consciousness. Jungian psychology and the Enneagram are natural partners that complement each other. This article shows how the Enneagram of Consciousness integrates Bennett's Enneagram process approach with the enneagram structure approach of the modern Enneagram of Personality Types.

First, we define Jung's four functions of consciousness (sensation, intuition, thinking, and feeling) and show the dynamic polarity between sensation and intuition in the perception dyad, and between thinking and feeling in the judgment dyad. Second, we introduce Jung's two attitudes of extraversion and introversion, and show that they lead to eight Jungian function-attitudes or processes of consciousness. The Jungian psychological Persona, and the Gurdjieff physical moving function are introduced to model Enneagram Point Three. Third, we introduce a detailed Jungian structure at each Enneagram Point. The structure has two dyads for the dominant attitude of Persona, and two dyads for the unconscious attitude of Shadow. Fourth, we then use this model to give insight into Enneagram of Personality Types, and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

Section One: The Enneagram of Consciousness

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section two

The Four Jungian Functions

The four Jungian functions 2 of consciousness are shown below in four quadrants of a circle. The sensation function receives physiological information from real objects. We see, hear, taste, touch, and smell real objects outside the body, such as apples. We sense real objects inside the body, such as muscle states and impulses. Sensation tells us that something is, but not what it is. The thinking function recognizes and tells us what that something is. The feeling or valuing function evaluates something and tells us what it is worth to us, and whether we like or dislike it. The intuition function perceives possibilities for real, subjective or intentional objects 2 in a situation. Intuition makes up for what you cannot sense or think or feel because it lacks reality at present. Sensation and intuition are an irrational function dyad, but thinking and feeling are a rational function dyad, according to Jung. The dyad members are shown on opposite sides of a circle.

The Jungian functions form triads with a first function from the first dyad, and a second and third function from the second dyad. Jung's great insight was that the fourth function from the first dyad is excluded. For example, if the sensation function is dominant, then the triad functions are sensation, thinking, and feeling, but intuition is excluded. The fourth function has a use deficit. It is difficult to differentiate and bring into consciousness because it can oppose the work of the first dominant function. A Psychological Type forms when the first function and attitude has excessive use. The second or third functions can support the first function's goals if they have an intermediate level of conscious use between deficit and excess.

The Jungian Function-Attitudes, Jungian Persona,
and Gurdjieff Moving Function

Mind places conscious attention on objects outside the body with an extraverted attitude, and on objects within the mind and body with an introverted attitude. This creates two Jungian processes for each Jungian function for a total of eight conscious processes on the Enneagram of Consciousness below. The Persona 3 is a ninth extraverted Jungian process that is assigned to Enneagram Point Three along with Gurdjieff's moving functions. These nine assignments are not arbitrary. The first or dominant Jungian processes of consciousness for Point One, Two, Five, Six, Seven agree exactly with Don Richard Riso's Jungian Type assignments. 4

Function-Attitude Name Point
Extraverted Sensation Se Seven
Extraverted Intuition Ne Four
Extraverted Thinking Te One
Extraverted Feeling Fe Two
Introverted Sensation Si Eight
Introverted Intuition Ni Nine
Introverted Thinking Ti Five
Introverted Feeling Fi Six
Extraverted Moving
& Extraverted Persona
Me Three

Notice that four extraverted processes of sensation, thinking, intuition, and feeling are located at Points Seven, One, Four, and Two on the enneagram circle. The Enneagram Law of Seven prescribes that these four extraverted processes are connected by three enneagram arrows to form the 7-1-4-2 line sequence. For example, extraverted sensation (Se) is the superior process at Enneagram Point Seven. Here you taste fruit from a tree of good or bad apples. But before you taste the apple you must move your mental and physical attention to Enneagram Point Three. You pick real fruit, move it to your mouth and then chew it using Three's moving functions. The fall comes if the apple cannot be chewed or digested easily. Then a tooth-ache or stomach ache might signal pain to consciousness with introverted sensation which is Point Eight's superior Jungian process. Point Eight is the fifth Jungian process in the sequence 7-1-4-2-8, and is connected to Point Two by a fourth arrow. Point Five is the sixth Jungian process in the 7-1-4-2-8-5 event sequence. Five is a rational reflective thinking point that is connected by a fifth arrow to Point Eight, and by a sixth arrow to Point Seven. The four introverted processes of thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition are located at Enneagram Points Five, Six, Eight, and Nine. Enneagram Points Five and Eight are included in the Law of Seven hexad pattern, but Points Six and Nine are included with Point Three in the Law of Three equilateral triangle pattern.

It is important to remember that Jung defined any felt internal physiological state of the body to be a sensation, and not feelings. A head, heart, or stomach ache is a sensation and not a sentiment or feeling. Point Eight monitors background internal body sensations or states. Point Three is where emotions move out and appear as facial expressions or body gestures, and where physical control is executed after a volitional action decision. Point Three expresses the psychological Jungian Persona and the physical Gurdjieff moving function Jung contributed to the language for values with the feeling function (not feelings) that is extraverted at Point Two and introverted at Point Six. Feeling and thinking are rational functions if used consciously. Preferring strawberry ice cream instead of vanilla ice cream can be a rational value judgment.

Section Two: The Jungian Unconscious Structure of Each Enneagram Point

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section three

We can gain insight into the unconscious behavior of each Enneagram Personality Type by examining the dyadic Jungian structure at each point on the Enneagram of Consciousness as shown below. Jung built the Taoist (yang-yin) philosophy of opposing dyads 5 into his psychological system of consciousness.

Persona Quad Shadow Quad
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th
Perceiving
Eight Si Te Fi Ne Se Ti Fe Ni
Seven Se Ti Fe Ni Si Te Fi Ne
Nine Ni Fe Ti Se Ne Fi Te Si
Four Ne Fi Te Si Ni Fe Ti Se
Judging
One Te Si Ne Fi Ti Se Ni Fe
Five Ti Se Ni Fe Te Si Ne Fi
Two Fe Si Ne Ti Fi Se Ni Te
Six Fi Ne Si Te Fe Ni Se Ti

Outer
Moving
Three Me.t Te Se Ne Fe Me.r Ti Si Ni Fi

Point Three's extraverted moving function [6] can send out (Me.t) or receive in (Me.r) matter or information. The most basic bidirectional instinctive-moving function is breathing. We automatically breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon-dioxide to live. The most unique learned-moving bidirectional function is speaking and listening, or writing and reading to communicate information and meaning between people. Motivating people and conveying meaning with language is a psychological aspect of the Jungian Persona.

If the fourth Jungian function is unconscious, then its two unconscious function-attitudes are the fourth process in the Persona quad and the eighth process in the Shadow quad. The fourth process has a chance of contributing creatively to the Persona because it is a complementary opposite process, but the eighth process cannot complement the first process's goals in anyway. The set of complementary-opposite first and fourth Jungian processes is shown as two concentric circles. For example, Enneagram Point Seven's extraverted sensation provides information from real objects in the world. Seven's complementary opposite introverted intuition may provide information from memory that helps Seven to understand the extraverted sensations.

Discussion of Complementary Opposites

Jungian irrational sensation is the superior function at Point Seven (Se)and Point Eight (Si), irrational intuition is the superior function atPoint Four (Ne) and Point Nine (Ni), rational thinking is the superior function at Point One (Te) and Point Five (Ti), and rational feeling is the uperior function at Point Two (Fe) and Point Six (Fi). Dyads formed by Points Eight and Four, Nine and Seven, One and Six, and Two and Five have a special relationship. Each Point's Persona contains an inside-out version of its complementary- opposite Point's Persona. For example, Point Eight's Persona Quadrant has Si, Te, Fi, and Ne as its first, second, third, and fourth processes, but Point Four's Persona has Ne, Fi, Te, and Si. The Jungian structure of each Enneagram Point contains the Law of Seven Enneagram arrows within its Persona or Shadow quads.

The Enneagram of Consciousness predicts the sensitivity of each Enneagram Point to their Jungian irrational sensation processes for physical internal body states. In the Instinctive Triad the 'felt' introverted sensations (Si) is in 1st and 2nd place for Points Eight and One, but in 8th place for Point Nine. This is why Type Nine is different from Type Eight from an instinctive point of view. The passions assigned by Oscar Ichazo 6 are shown below with their Jungian sensation function-attitudes on the Enneagram of Consciousness. The meaning of the passions is correlated with the degree of consciousness of two sensation processes at each Point.

Instinctive Triad
Eight Nine One
Si 1st 8th 2nd
Passions lust indolence anger
Se 5th 4th 6th
////////////////////
Feeling Triad
Two Three Four
Si 2nd 3rd 4th
Passions pride vanity envy
Se 6th 7h 8th
////////////////////
Thinking Triad
Five Six Seven
Si 6th 3rd 5th
Passions avarice fear gluttony
Se 2nd 7th 1st
////////////////////

Section Three: The Enneagram of Consciousness and MBTI Type Comparisons

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conclusion

The Enneagram of Consciousness predicts that many different MBTI Types 7 will be reported in studies of many people with the same Enneagram Type. The Enneagram of Consciousness explains MBTI and Enneagram Survey results in the Enneagram Monthly 8 and predicts which inferior Jungian 4th function-attitude would be erroneously reported as an Enneagram Point's superior Jungian function-attitude. This Typing problem is difficult to resolve if different Enneagram Typing Methods use different Type theory and different standards for designing Enneagram Type questionnaires. The Enneagram of Consciousness shows that all Jungian processes are potentially present at each point but in decreasing Levels of Consciousness. The dyad of first and fourth complementary opposite processes provides the core for Enneagram Type.

A person will not report their dominant Jungian function as their preferred function on an MBTI questionnaire if they prefer using their third or fourth function at their present state of Jungian Individuation. This reporting error is not uncommon for people with superior sensation, and reflects individual freedom to choose. This is the natural result of the Jungian Individuation process. It's the real pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. The individuated person can freely chooses Jungian functions as they are needed by the work at hand. MBTI indirectly measures the first and second Jungian function and attitude quite accurately when these preferences are quite clear, and when the third or fourth function preferences are not reported.

Marie-Louise von Franz, the leading spokesperson for Jungian psychology, describes individuation:

If someone has really gone through the transformation, then he can sometimes think, if that is the appropriate reaction, or let intuition or sensation come into operation; but there is no longer any automatic possession by these functions. The ego can take one function up and put it down, like taking up a pencil or eraser, according to the situation, but ego dwells, as it were, in the awareness of its own reality outside the functional system.9

The RHETI resolves ambiguity when MBTI preferences are not clear because the RHETI predicts the relative preference for all eight Jungian Types and the ninth Jungian Persona. MBTI Type can then be calculated using definitions and RHETI data for the nine Jungian processes using the Enneagram of Consciousness as a map.

Mistyping Errors and Confusion
Between MBTI and Enneagram Types

Mistyping is a serious problem that I discussed with an MBTI professional at the 2nd International Enneagram Conference. She was surprised that extraverted intuition is the dominant first Jungian process at Enneagram Point Four, but only the complementary-opposite fourth Jungian process at Point Eight on the Enneagram of Consciousness. 'Where are ENFP and INFP on the enneagram?', she asked. 'ENFP is at Enneagram Point Four and INFP is at Point Six', I said.

Next morning she excitedly told me that her husband had just discovered he had been mistyped as Enneagram Type Four. But he was correctly retyped as Enneagram Type Six by a panel the previous day. She said my prediction for true MBTI Type on the Enneagram of Consciousness was confirmed by his panel experience. He said his head was overloaded with information and couldn't hold anymore. This was Six's rational introverted feeling judgment preventing overload from more input with its Point Seven wing.

The Enneagram of Consciousness defines Type Four's Persona structure as dominant Ne first, Fi second, Te third, and inferior Si fourth. Six's Persona structure is dominant Fi first, Ne Second, Si third, and inferior Te fourth. Six in the Head Triad might be anxious or fearful, while Four in the Heart Triad might be melancholy or envious. Extraverted Intuition provides meaning for spoken or written languages. We can hear a foreign language with Point Seven's extraverted sensation, but we will not understand the intentional meaning of spoken words if the external meaning map from extraverted intuition is missing.

It is not meaningful to compare MBTI Type with Enneagram Personality Type if a person is developing their third or fourth Jungian function and report them as a preference. It is not meaningful to compare MBTI and the Enneagram in detail because the Enneagram is a nine process system with Jungian Persona and Gurdjieff moving function, but MBTI excludes the Gurdjieff moving function and Jungian Persona. MBTI lacks the enneagram's three-triad, three-brain context for grounding Jungian functions. It lacks the Enneagram Rules of Three and Seven for modeling habitual patterns of behavior and ways of learning new information. Enneagram Personality Type and Jungian Psychological Type are close family members. Jungian Type is not contextually grounded with Instinctual, Emotional, and Intellectual Triads, or the Laws or Three and Seven, but this article shows that Jungian psychology and the Enneagram are natural partners.

Conclusion

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footnotes/references

The Enneagram of Consciousness, discovered by Walter Joseph Geldart, integrates the enneagram process model of John Bennett with the structure model of Enneagram Personality Types using Jungian psychological functions and Gurdjieff moving functions. This extends the enneagram information system from psychology to philosophy and science, and confirms Gurdjieff's contention that the enneagram is an archetypal symbol for integrating all types of information into whole patterns. Triad patterns of information are fundamental to the Enneagram, and Fuzzy Logic systems.


Footnotes/References

In October, Walter presented a paper on Fuzzy Information, Man, and the Enneagram to a scientific audience at the 1997 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. He is a Riso-Hudson Certified Enneagram Teacher (1997, with honors).

1. This paper first appeared in 'Full Circle', Volume 3, Number 2, in the Fall of 1997. 'Full Circle' is the Journal Newsletter of the Riso-Hudson Professional Enneagram Association. back to text

2. C. J. Jung, Analytical Psychology - Its Theory and Practice, Vintage Books, 1968, pp.1-50. back to text

3. R. H. Hopcke, Persona - Where Sacred Meets Profane, Shambala, 1995. back to text

4. D. R. Riso, with R. Hudson, Personality Types - Using the Enneagram for Self-Discovery, Houghton- Mifflin, 1996, pp. 441-443. back to text

5. D. Rosen, M.D., The Tao of Jung - The Way of Integrity, Viking, 1996; and
A. S. Harris, Living With Paradox - An Introduction to Jungian Psychology, Brookes/Cole, 1996, pp. 65- 75. back to text

6. P.D. Ouspensky, The Fourth Way, Vintage Books, 1957, pp. 53-68; and
C. Naranjo, M.D., Character and Neurosis - An Integrative View, Gateway, 1994, p. 26. back to text

7. W. J. Geldart, Enneagram Monthly - The Map Between Enneagram and Jungian Type; Bennett and Understanding Wholes, Enneagram Monthly, January 1996, page 4. Proposed Mapping Between Jungian and Enneagram Type, Enneagram Monthly, March 1996, pp. 16-17. Continuing the Search for Common Ground Between the Enneagram and the MBTI, Enneagram Monthly, April 1996, pp.10-11; and
I. Briggs-Myers, P. B. Myers, Gifts Differing, Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980. back to text

8. A. Issacs & J. Fudjack, Demographic Data Results: The Enneagram and MBTI Comparison Chart, Enneagram Monthly, March 1996, pp.12-13. A chart summarizing the EM findings is included on this webpage. back to text

9. M. Von Franz, Psychotherapy, Shambala, 1993, pp. 52-53.
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